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Indian National Movement Notes In Tamil Pdf 31

Dadabhai Naoroji in his presidential address at the 1886 National Congress in Calcutta advocated for Swaraj as the sole aim of the nationalist movement, but along the lines of Canada and Australia, which was colonial self-government under the British crown. In 1907, Sri Aurobindo, as editor of the newspaper Bande Mataram, began writing that the new generation of nationalists would not accept anything less than Purna Swaraj, full independence, as it exists in the United Kingdom. Through his writings and speeches, along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak he popularised this idea, making it a core part of the nationalist discourse.[2][3]

indian national movement notes in tamil pdf 31

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The Declaration of Independence was officially promulgated on 26 January 1930. Gandhi and other Indian leaders would immediately begin the planning of a massive national non-violence would encourage the common people not to attack Britishers even if they attacked them.[7] Subsequently, the Salt Satyagraha was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi on 12 March 1930 and what followed gave impetus to the Indian independence movement and sparked off the nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement.

The Indian National Congress (INC), colloquially the Congress Party but often simply the Congress, is a political party in India with widespread roots.[29] Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.[a][30] From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement.[31] The Congress led India to independence from the United Kingdom,[d] and significantly influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.[e][30]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, and the new extremists who advocated agitation, and regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists.[48]

After the failure of the Cripps Mission launched by the British government to gain Indian support for the British war effort, Mahatma Gandhi made a call to "Do or Die" in his Quit India movement delivered in Bombay on 8 August 1942 at the Gowalia Tank Maidan and opposed any help to the British in World War 2.[70] The British government responded with mass arrests including that of Gandhi and Congress leaders and killed over 1,000 Indians who participated in this movement.[71] A number of violent attacks were also carried out by the nationalists against the British government.[72] The movement played a role in weakening the control over the South Asian region by the British regime and ultimately paved the way for Indian independence.[72][73]

After independence, Congress advocated the idea of establishing Hindi as the sole national language of India. Nehru led the faction of the Congress party which promoted Hindi as the lingua franca of the Indian nation.[226] However, the non-Hindi-speaking Indian states especially Tamil Nadu opposed it and wanted the continued use of the English language. Lal Bahadur Shastri's tenure witnessed several protests and riots including the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965.[227] Shashtri's appealed to agitators to withdraw the movement and assured them that the English would continue to be used as the official language as long as the non-Hindi speaking states wanted.[228] Indira Gandhi assuaged the sentiments of the non-Hindi speaking states by getting the Official Languages Act amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English could continue until a resolution to end the use of the language was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted use Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[229] This was a guarantee of de facto use of both Hindi and English as official languages, thus establishing bilingualism in India.[230] The step led to the end of the anti-Hindi protests and riots in states.

The civil disobedience movement was a landmark event in the Indian Nationalist movement. In many ways, the civil disobedience movement is credited for paving the way for freedom in India. It was significant in many ways as it was a movement spread to the urban areas and witnessed the participation of women and people belonging to the lower castes. In this blog, we bring to you the revision notes of the civil disobedience movement.

At the Karachi session, an important resolution of fundamental rights and economic policy was passed. Besides laying down the policy of the nationalist movement on social and economic problems facing the country, it guaranteed fundamental rights to the people irrespective of caste and religion and favoured the nationalisation of industries. The session met with the participation of Indian princes, Hindu, Muslim and Sikh communal leaders. However, the sole reason for their participation was to promote their vested interests. None of them was interested in the independence of India. Due to this, the second round table conference was met with a failure and no agreement could be reached. The government repression intensified and Gandhi and many other leaders were arrested. In all about 12,000 people were arrested. After the withdrawal of the movement in 1939, Congress passed a resolution that demanded that a constituent assembly, elected by the people based on adult franchise, be convened. And that only such an assembly could frame the constitution for India. Even though Congress did not succeed, this garnered vast sections of the people to participate in the mass struggle. Radical objectives for the transformation of Indian society were also adopted.

This was all about the civil disobedience movement. We hope you find the revision notes helpful in your preparations. For more such content, subscribe to Leverage Edu and book a free session with our experts.

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